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Yevhen Shtendera:



In January 1945 the author made his way from the USSR into the Liubachiv povit of Poland. His main assignment was first to inspect the local UPA units and the administration sector of the underground, and then to see to their reorganization. In addition, he was to establish contact to and cooperation with the AK, the Polish anti-Communist armed movement. His orders came from Dmytro Sliuzar - "Zolotar", leader of the Lviv obtast underground, and from Vasyl Levkovych "Voronyi", commander of the Lviv VO UPA "Buh" area of military activity.

Upon reaching his goal, the author made contact with Ivan Shpontak-"Zalizniak\ commander of a battalion, who informed him that most of the povit OUN leaders were no longer alive. With help from him and those still surviving the author was able to complete his order of reorganiiation. This entailed renaming the Liubachiv povit into the Liubachiv nadraion, expanding its area to include villages with a Ukrainian population in Poland, specifically those of the Yavoriv povit and of the whole of the Uhniv raion, where the latter had previously belonged to the Rava Ruskyi povit, and, when still under Polish rule, had formed part of the Tomashiv povit. As part of this reorganization a new leadership level was set in place, providing a new organizational structure for the Liubachiv nadraion, and by February its underground leadership had started to work most ffectively.

By spring came new changes into force. This brought the inclusion of the Yaroslav nadraion, then part of the underground Peremyshel okruha, into the Uubachiv nadraion. This much expandet region of activity was now headed up by "Stal", with the author serving as second in command* Some time shortly before Easter Yaroslav Starukh^Stiah" was sent to the area and assumed ledership over this Ukrainian underground-controlted territory, also known as the Zakerzonnia or the Zakerzonskyi krai. He raised the status of this nadraion, in turn, to that of okruha, code named "Baturyn", encompassing now the whole of the unified Lubachiv nadraion.

In addition to describing organizational changes the author writes also about major events taking place locally. At that time the UPA had just fought an unsuccessful battle against the NKVD, in which it lost all soldiers from two platoons. Liubachiv witnessed the arrival of the KBV battalion (the Polish NKVD), which had burned five Ukrainian villages to the ground, killing hundreds of civilians outright. Futhermore, that spring the UPA carried out an effective action, when in the course of one night 18 local headquarters of the (M0?j were destroyed. This brought, as a result, the state of collaboration between the UPA and the AK (later known as the WiN), extending over the whole Ukrainian-Polish border area.

Present-day Polish researchers, it seems, have not been able to uncover specific facts about this early stage of activity leading up to border area. Presen-day Polish researchers, it seems, have not been able to uncover specific facts about this early stage of activity leading up to the organization of the "Baturyn" okruha, since they refere only to the much later and finalized structure of the "Baturyn" okruha itself. This Is, in turn, being repeated by some writers on the Ukrainia side, even those clainiing to speak about their own personal experiences. They should now come to realize that at first that area was composed of many povity, which, in turn, made up parts of numerous oblasts. We trust this recounting of facts will now help others avoid this often made mistake.

Issue 1,    Winter 2000    Litopys
Published by Forum for the Studies of the History of the UPA
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